Spring

For Decoupled, Fast Java-Based App Deployments

Java is still one of the most popular programming languages on the market. According to the TIOBE index, Java currently stays at #3, behind Python and C. According to the PYPL index, Java is #2, behind Python. That popularity means your business will most likely consider Java for numerous types of projects, including applications and layers for Android, web, IoT, cloud, games, data science, and research.

Java is an incredibly flexible and powerful language, one that most businesses can’t avoid. 

During your developers’ journey with Java, they will run into numerous tools and frameworks, each designed to help make the task of working with this language easier, more efficient, and more powerful.

One such framework is Spring. Spring isn’t your typical developer framework. Spring is a Java-based platform that provides comprehensive infrastructure support for developing applications. With Spring, your developers can spend their time focusing on the application and not the infrastructure.

With Spring, your developers can build applications from Plain Old Java Objects (POJOs) and then apply enterprise services to those POJOs. And Spring serves as a foundation for understanding all of the projects under the Spring umbrella, such as Spring Boot, Spring Data, and Spring Batch. 

In fact, without understanding the Spring framework, your developers will have trouble grasping the other available tools in the Spring toolkit.

Spring2

Spring Developers Hiring Guide

  • How to choose the best
  • Interview questions
  • Job Description

What is Spring?

You already know that Spring is a framework. But, as we mentioned, it’s not your typical framework. Consider the web application, which is made up of 3 dependent layers:

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    UI layer
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    Business logic layer
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    Data access layer

Each of these layers requires the others for the whole to function, and each layer might include hundreds (or even thousands) of classes and dependencies. This is where Spring comes in. Without Spring at play, each component within an application would have to be tightly coupled, otherwise the whole would fail. However, such interdependent programming isn’t considered a best practice. When you program components so tightly integrated, the slightest change to one component will impact the others.

With Spring you can practice much more loose coupling, which means a change in one component won’t affect the functioning of others.

To that end, Spring is associated with the Dependency Injector take on Inversion of Control.

What is Inversion of Control (IoC)?

When we talk about Inversion of Control, we refer to the inversion of the flow of control in object-oriented design that achieves loose coupling. As an example, consider your primary means of transportation. Every morning, when you leave to go to work, you get in a car and drive yourself. That’s you controlling the car. If we apply Inversion of Control to this, you might leave your house and use mass transportation to make it to work. In that instance, someone else controls the vehicle.

With Inversion of Control, Spring makes it possible for you to create a functioning whole out of disparate components.

It's All About Modules

Spring achieves all of this by way of modules. There are roughly 20 Spring modules, which are organized into the following categories:

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    Core Container
    Provides the fundamental pieces of the framework, including Beans, Core, Context, Expression Language, as well as the bits to make IoC and dependency injection possible.
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    Data Access/Integration
    Provides an abstraction layer that precludes the need to deal with JDBC coding parsing of database-vendor error codes. This module includes JDBC, ORM, OXM, JMS, Transactions.
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    Web
    Provides basic web functionality and includes Web, Servlet, Portlet, Struts.
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    AOP/Aspects/Instrumentation
    Provides a complaint programming implementation for the defining of method-interceptors and pointcuts to help decouple code.
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    Test
    Supports JUnit and TestNG testing of Spring components.

What is Aspect-Oriented Programming?

You will also need to understand the concept of aspect-oriented programming (AOP). With object-oriented programming (OOP), the component that offers modularity is the class. In AOP, modularity is made possible via the aspect. This is possible because it allows the separation of cross-cutting concerns by adding additional behavior to existing code without modifying the code itself. 

By working with the AOP model, it’s possible to add behaviors without cluttering the code that is core to the application functionality. This is made possible by breaking down the programming logic into separate pieces (called concerns). Some concerns (such as logging) “cut across” numerous abstractions. These concerns are called cross-cutting concerns. All AOP implementations include cross-cutting concerns.

All of this is brought together by “wiring” classes with an XML file so all of the objects are instantiated and initialized by Spring. In the end, Spring is a method of simplifying the creation of Java-based websites and services that depend on databases. With Spring you’ll find you can structure entire applications in a consistent, productive manner.

Why should you use Spring?

There are several reasons why you should consider using Spring. For one, Spring has become the de-facto standard framework for building Java-based web applications. Spring is also capable of exposing RESTful services. Besides, it also includes Spring Security, which adds both authentication and authorization into the mix.

Other reasons include:

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    Easier communication with databases
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    Better handling of long-running jobs
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    Easily handles external resources
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    Outstanding testing
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    Can be used for standalone Java projects
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    Can be used to convert applications into executables
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    Makes it possible to integrate social media into your applications
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    Fast prototyping
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    Makes it easier to get started
  • Spring 2

    Hiring Guide

  • Spring 3

    Interview Questions

  • Spring 4

    Job Description

The Spring container is the center of the framework. It’s used for creating and managing string bean objects, which are the backbone of Spring applications. It uses dependency injection and Inversion of Control (IOC) for managing these components.

IOC is a programming principle that enables Spring to attain loose coupling. Spring allows you to inject objects in class rather than waiting for the class to create an object. This transfers the control of objects to the container. 

Spring uses an aspect-oriented programming model for modularization. It separates cross-cutting tasks such as performance monitoring, error handling, transaction management, etc., away from the application's business logic.  


Spring In Today’s Market

Spring is one of the most powerful frameworks for Java. Thousands of websites worldwide use Spring to manage the complexity of Java. Developers all around the world trust this framework, and its popularity is rising.

That’s because this fast, secure, and flexible framework has provided comprehensive infrastructure for developing enterprise Java applications. In addition, Spring’s Model-View-Controller (MCV) architecture allows the development of flexible web applications through web servlets. As a result, Spring has become a default solution for developing large-scale enterprise applications.  


Issues Companies Face While Hiring Spring Developers

Hiring reliable and capable Spring developers doesn’t come without its share of challenges. First, there is a shortage of experienced Spring developers. A good Spring developer should have great problem-solving skills and should be able to create, deploy, and manage code modules efficiently. But many developers lack the expertise and experience required to handle full-scale projects. 

Even if they can handle Spring, sometimes the engineers aren’t able to handle complex Java operations such as concurrency and lambda expressions. Or they may not have experience in servlets, servlet containers, or Java Database Connectivity. 

Another issue is the lack of upskilling. Being a Spring developer means that you have to constantly keep upskilling yourself with emerging technologies and software to update your company’s tech stack. It’s a hard process, and only a few developers can rise up to the challenge.  


How To Choose the Best Spring Developers

Hiring a good Spring developer is a complex task. A perfect Spring developer should know more than just the technical aspects related to the framework. They also have to understand complex business requirements and how to convert them into efficient and scalable solutions.  

A good Spring Developer requires expertise in Java and Java EE application development. They should know about application design and OOPS. They should also know about advanced Spring principles such as ICO and dependency injection (DI).

A Spring developer might have to work on QA and bug reporting. For that, they should have extensive experience in error handling and resolution. They should also be well versed with REST APIs along with JSP, JSTL, and Spring boot. 


Conclusion

Spring has proven itself as one of the most popular and preferred frameworks for Java development. Its unique features have enabled developers to work on business logic without worrying about boilerplate code. As a result, Spring developers are highly useful for creating enterprise-level applications quickly and smoothly. 

What are the 2 methods you can use to get beans from an IOC container? 

BeanFactory and ApplicationContext are the 2 methods to get beans from the IOC container. BeanFactory is a basic container that manages beans. It is advisable to use BeanFactory when memory consumption is critical, such as when building mobile apps. That’s because it’s more lightweight than ApplicationContext. 

On the other hand, ApplicationContext is a more advanced container that includes all the functionality of the BeanFactory. It’s a central interface in the Spring container and is highly recommended for enterprise applications.


In which scenario would you use singleton and prototype scope?

Singleton scope is used with stateless beans, while prototype scope is used with stateful beans. Singleton only creates one instance for a single bean per container. Thus, the same object is returned each time it’s injected. However, the prototype scope creates a new instance for a single bean for every new request made. Here, a new object is produced each time it’s injected.


How can you fetch records from Spring JdbcTemplate?

Records can be easily fetched from the database using the query method of JdbcTemplate. It can be done via 2 interfaces - ResultSetExtractor and Rowmapper. ResultSetExtractor accepts a ResultSet and returns the list. Engineers use the RowMapper interface to map ResultSet on a per-row basis. Thus, it doesn't need to write a lot of code to fetch the records, and RowMapper objects are generally reusable.


What is bean wiring, and how does auto wiring occur?

Bean wiring is the act of combining beans and their properties with a Spring container for dependency injection. Auto wiring is done by placing a bean instance into the desired field of another bean. 


List some of the new features in Spring 5.0

Spring has gained many new features with the upgrade to Spring 5, such as:

  • Core Framework Revision: The community has improved Spring Core to take advantage of Java 8 features.
  • Functional Programming with Kotlin: The upgrade has introduced support for Kotlin. Kotlin is a modern, object-oriented programming language that is interoperable with Java. Kotlin support has enabled developers to dive into functional Spring programming and Android development.
  • Core Container Update: With 5.0, Spring can now support candidate component indexes as a substitute for classpath scanning. This significantly impacts large projects as loading the index is easier than scanning and reduces costs. 

We are looking for smart Spring developers to join our team. They should be passionate team players who specialize in Spring development, Java development, and module maintenance. It’s an excellent opportunity for result-oriented developers who want to tackle challenging projects while improving their skills.


Responsibilities

  • Apply business log to create functional and scalable applications.
  • Design, build and maintain Java applications.
  • Ensure security, performance, and quality.
  • Maintain J2EE applications. Coordinate with product managers, DBAs, and stakeholders to understand business requirements.
  • Identify bugs, bottlenecks, and errors and fix them.
  • Follow best industry practices and standards.
  • {{Add other relevant responsibilities}}

Skills and Qualifications

  • Working Knowledge of Java and J2EE.
  • Experience in frameworks such as Spring, Struts, and Hibernate
  • Proven experience with OOPS principles and MVC design.
  • Knowledge of JDBC and Java GUI
  • Knowledge of REST API and architecture design.
  • Problem-solving skills and team spirit.
  • {{Add other frameworks or libraries related to your development stack}}
  • {{List education level or certification required}}

Conclusion

Spring is a complicated framework, but it’s one your developers should most certainly take the time to understand. If your business needs rapid Java application deployment of web apps and services that are flexible and decoupled, Spring is the framework you need.

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